Implement the following changes to organizational systems and system components to introduce a degree of unpredictability into operations: [Assignment: organization-defined changes and frequency of changes by system and system component].
DiscussionCyber-attacks by adversaries are predicated on the assumption of a certain degree of predictability and consistency regarding the attack surface. The attack surface is the set of points on the boundary of a system, a system element, or an environment where an attacker can try to enter, cause an effect on, or extract data from the system, system element, or environment. Changes to the attack surface reduce the predictability of the environment, making it difficult for adversaries to plan and carry out attacks, and can cause the adversaries to make miscalculations that can either impact the overall effectiveness of the attacks or increase the observability of the attackers. Unpredictability can be achieved by making changes in seemingly random times or circumstances (e.g., by randomly shortening the time when the credentials are valid). Randomness introduces increased levels of uncertainty for adversaries regarding the actions that organizations take to defend their systems against attacks. Such actions may impede the ability of adversaries to correctly target system components that support critical or essential organizational missions or business functions. Uncertainty may also cause adversaries to hesitate before initiating attacks or continuing attacks. Techniques involving randomness include performing certain routine actions at different times of day, employing different information technologies, using different suppliers, and rotating the roles and responsibilities of organizational personnel.