Critical or sensitive system and organizational operations for which dual authorization is to be enforced are identified.
Employ dual authorization to execute critical or sensitive system and organizational operations.
Dual authorization, also known as two-person control, reduces risk related to insider threats. Dual authorization requires the approval of two authorized individuals to execute certain commands, actions, or functions. For example, organizations employ dual authorization to help ensure that changes to selected system components (i.e., hardware, software, and firmware) or information cannot occur unless two qualified individuals approve and implement such changes. These individuals possess the skills and expertise to determine if the proposed changes are correct implementations of the approved changes, and they are also accountable for those changes. Another example is employing dual authorization for the execution of privileged commands. To reduce the risk of collusion, organizations consider rotating assigned dual authorization duties to reduce the risk of an insider threat. Dual authorization can be implemented via either technical or procedural measures and can be carried out sequentially or in parallel.