Ensure that the actions of individual system users can be uniquely traced to those users, so they can be held accountable for their actions.
DiscussionThis requirement ensures that the contents of the audit record include the information needed to link the audit event to the actions of an individual to the extent feasible. Organizations consider logging for traceability including results from monitoring of account usage, remote access, wireless connectivity, mobile device connection, communications at system boundaries, configuration settings, physical access, nonlocal maintenance, use of maintenance tools, temperature and humidity, equipment delivery and removal, system component inventory, use of mobile code, and use of VoIP.
Further DiscussionCapturing the necessary information in audit logs ensures that you can trace actions to a specific user. This may include capturing user IDs, source and destination addresses, and time stamps. Logging from networks, servers, clients, and applications should be considered in ensuring accountability. This practice, AU.L2-3.3.2, which ensures logging and traceability of user actions, supports the control of non-privileged users required by AC.L2-3.1.7 as well as many other auditing, configuration management, incident response, and situation awareness practices.
ExampleYou are a system administrator. You want to ensure that you can trace all remote access sessions to a specific user. You configure the VPN device to capture the following information for all remote access connections: source and destination IP address, user ID, machine name, time stamp, and user actions during the remote session [b].
Potential Assessment Considerations
- Are users uniquely traced and held responsible for unauthorized actions [a]?
- Does the system protect against an individual denying having performed an action (non-repudiation) [b]?